The Philosophic-mathematical Manuscripts of Karl Marx on Differential Calculus – An Introduction (1983, 2014) – Paulus Gerdes
Pre više od mesec dana ovde sam postavio pitanje kako je moguće da se istovremeno smanjuje i broj zaposlenih i stopa nezaposlenosti. Na jučerašnjoj konferenciji za štampu ministra za rad ponovljena je tvrdnja da se stopa nezaposlenosti smanjuje 7 meseci za redom i da je sada za 3.8% manja nego što je bila krajem septembra 2013. i iznosi 20.3%.
Pošto se nigde ne vidе znaci oporavka privrede, na primer, industrijska proizvodnja pada, a manji je i ukupan broj zaposlenih, postavlja se pitanje da li je pad stope nezaposlenosti realan ili fiktivan? Kako je moguće da stopa nezaoslenosti pada, ako se ništa drugo u ekonomiji ne menja i čak postoje negativni trendovi?
III. The “Neue Marx-Lektüre”
It was first within the framework of the “neue Marx-Lektüre” (“New Reading of Marx”), which emerged in the mid-1960s, that problems of state theory and economic theory once again played a role outside of Marxism-Leninism. This new wave of reception of Marx’s theory was also more or less situated outside of Stalinism and Social Democracy. Alongside the new reading in West European countries, there were isolated rudiments of a “new reading of Marx” occurring in Eastern Europe.68 Its genesis in West Germany coincided with phenomena such as the student movement, the first jolts to belief in a perpetual and politically manageable post-war prosperity, the breaking up of the anti-communist consensus in the course of the Vietnam War, etc., yet remained, despite its radical emancipatory claims, confined largely to academia. Here, we distinguish between this “new reading of Marx” in a broader sense69, and one more narrowly defined.70 Whereas the former was an international phenomenon, the latter was confined primarily to West Germany. If the former still remained predominantly trapped within Engelsian dogma with regard to the critique of political economy, the latter foregrounded the revision of previous historicist or empiricist interpretations of Marx’s form analysis. In terms of content, a threefold abandonment of central topoi of traditional Marxism was consummated in the main threads of the debate, themselves contradictory and in no way shared by all participants: a move away from a substantialist theory of value71; abandonment of manipulative-instrumental conceptions of the state72; and a move away from labor movement-centric interpretations of the critique of political economy, or interpretations based on a “labor-ontological” revolutionary theory (or even upon revolutionary theory as such).73 This new reading articulates its theoretical efforts in the form of a reconstruction of Marx’s theory.
“To create Lament – an album built around a theme and based on a stage show did you utilise a different creative process?
‘We normally do much more research in the field of sound and what to do with new materials because Neubauten is very much a materialistic band in that sense. In this case we had two scientific researchers to actually come up with the actual material for us to work with ideas wise. By the time it was commissioned in August 2013 I already knew the old memory mill had already started. I knew by the time that we put this on stage that there would be a whole year behind it of being constantly bombarded in the media with World War One material and I knew we had to find something, new ideas, about the war that were not trampled to death already.’
The music on the album captures many moods – was there an attempt to capture the sound of war?
‘I was very much trying to avoid anything like capturing the sound of war. I very much did not want to fill the equation Einsturzende Neubauten – noise – war. I leave that to Rammstein to do things like that. I wanted to tell a horrible story beautifully and not the other way round.’”
Debt and Punishment. A critical review of David Graeber’s ›debt‹. The book is missing an analysis of capitalism
The last few years of crisis politics were a prime example of how on the one hand profits are privatized, while on the other hand losses are socialized. The deep crisis of capitalism has left in its wake a sovereign debt crisis. The answer of the political class has been fiscal consolidation. Finance capital’s claims on returns are guaranteed and collected by the state. The invisible hand of the market is joined by the visible fist of the state. Struggles over state finances will be central battlefields in the next few years.
That is no doubt the reason why the publication of David Graeber’s book Debt: The First 5,000 Years was greeted with euphoria, even by the bourgeois press. In the Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung, Frank Schirrmacher wrote that Graeber »opens the reader’s eyes to what’s going on right now,« and furthermore, »Graeber’s text is a revelation, since one is no longer forced to react to the system itself within the system of apparent economic rationality.« Der Spiegel opines: »his book on the nature of debt and its economic and moral basis is already regarded as an anti-capitalist standard work of the new social movements which have emerged during the world economic crisis.« This is in reference to the Occupy protests. Even the chief economist of the Deutsche Bank group reviewed Graber’s book positively in the monthly economic policy journal Wirtschaftsdienst (4/2012) with regard to the question of the future of central banking. Since May 2012, the book has been available in a German edition.